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About Sammies
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The Samoyed  (according to the Canadian Kennel Club - Breeding Standard)


Origin and Purpose

One of the oldest domesticated breeds of dogs, the Samoyed was bred

and developed by the nomadic Samoyed tribes in Northeast Siberia,

north of the Arctic Circle. Rather than being bred for a specific purpose,

they were bred and are noted for their versatility as a sled, herding, guard

and companion dog. They made a tremendous contribution to the Arctic

and Antarctic expeditions as a strong and dependable sled dog. They

were used by the Samoyed people as a sled and draught animal as well

as to guard and drive reindeer herds from one feeding ground to another.

Their importance to the Samoyed people, who depended largely upon

their dogs for survival, caused them to be regarded as members of the

family and companions, as well as tough, sturdy work animals, which

contributed to the unique Samoyed disposition of today.

General Appearance

The Samoyed, being essentially a working dog, should present a picture

of beauty, alertness and strength, with agility, dignity, and grace. As

their work lies in the cold climate, their coat should be heavy and

weather resistant, and of good quality rather than quantity. The male

carries more of a “ruff ” than the female. They should not be long in the

back as a weak back would make them practically useless for their

legitimate work, but at the same time a close-coupled body would also

place them at a great disadvantage as a draught dog. Breeders should

aim for the happy medium, a body not long but muscular, allowing

liberty, with a deep chest and well-sprung ribs, strong arched neck,

straight front and especially strong loins. Males should be masculine in

appearance and deportment without unwarranted aggressiveness;

bitches feminine without weakness of structure or apparent softness of

temperament. Bitches may be slightly longer in back than males. They

should both give the appearance of being capable of great endurance

but be free from coarseness. Because of the depth of chest required,

the legs should be moderately long. Hindquarters should be

particularly well developed, stifles well bent and any suggestion of

unsound stifles or cow-hocks severely penalized. General appearance

should include movement and general conformation indicating balance

and good substance.

Temperament

Intelligent, gentle, loyal, adaptable, alert, full of action, eager to serve,

friendly but conservative, not distrustful or shy. Unprovoked aggressiveness

is to be severely penalized.

Canadian Kennel Club Official Breed Standards

GROUP III WORKING DOGS III-25

January 2004

III-25.1 GROUP III WORKING DOGS

Size

(a) Height - Dogs - 21 to 23-1/2 inches (53 to 60 cm) at the withers.

Bitches - 19 to 21-1/2 inches (48 to 55 cm) at the withers. An

oversized or undersized Samoyed is to be penalized according to the

extent of the deviation.

(b) Weight - in proportion to size.

(c) Substance - The bone is heavier than would be expected in a dog

this size but not so massive as to prevent the speed and agility most

desirable in a Samoyed. In all builds, the bone should be in

proportion to body size. The Samoyed should never be so heavy to

appear clumsy nor so light as to appear racy.

Coat and Colour

(a) Coat (type and texture)

The Samoyed is a double-coated dog. The body should be well

covered with an undercoat of soft, short, thick closed wool with

longer, harsher hair growing through it to form the outer coat, which

stands straight out from the body and should be free from curl in the

adult dog. The coat should form a ruff around the neck and

shoulders, framing the head (more on the males than on the females).

Quality of coat should be weather resistant and considered more

important than quantity. A droopy coat is undesirable. Length of coat

is un-important when compared to type of coat and texture. The coat

should glisten with a silver sheen. The female does not usually carry

as long a coat as most males and it may be slightly softer in texture.

(b) Colour

They must be white, white and biscuit, white cream, cream or all

biscuit. All of these colours should be considered equal. Any other

colours disqualify.

(c) Faults

Curly, wavy, flat, droopy, soft or silky outercoat is extremely undesirable.

Excessive coat length should be viewed as an exaggeration of

type and is a fault. Extremely short, smooth coats are not typical.

Lack of undercoat (with seasonal consideration). Coat parting down

back.

Head

(a) Skull

The skull is wedge-shaped, broad, flat, not round or apple-headed,

and should form an equilateral triangle on lines between the inner

base of the ears and the centre point of the stop. The stop should

not be too abrupt, nevertheless well defined. In profile the topline of

skull should parallel the topline of muzzle.

SAMOYED

Canadian Kennel Club Official Breed Standards

GROUP III WORKING DOGS III-25.2

(b) Muzzle

Muzzle of medium length and medium width, neither course nor

snipy; should taper toward the nose and be proportion to the size of

the dog and width of skull. Length of muzzle should be slightly

shorter than length of skull. The muzzle must have depth with a

strong underjaw. Whiskers should not be removed.

(c) Nose

Black for preference, but brown, liver or snow-nose not penalized.

Colour of nose sometimes changes with age and weather.

(d) Mouth

Lips should be black for preference and slightly curved up at the

corners of the mouth, giving the “Samoyed Smile”. Lip lines should

not have the appearance of being coarse nor should the flews drop

predominately at the corners of the mouth. The teeth should be

strong, well-set, and snugly overlapping in a scissors bite. Overshot

or undershot should be penalized.

(e) Eyes

Should be placed well apart and deep-set; almond shaped rims set

with lower lid slanting toward an imaginary point approximating the

outer base of the ear. Both eye rims and eye colour should be dark.

Round or protruding eyes penalized. Blue eyes disqualify.

(f) Ears

Strong and thick, erect, triangular and slightly rounded at the tips;

should not be large or pointed, nor should they be small and “beareared”.

Ears should conform to head size and the size of the dog.

They should be mobile and well covered inside with hair; hair full

and stand-off before the ears. Length of ear should be same

measurement as the distance from the inner base of the ear to the

outer corner of the eye.

Neck

Strong, well muscled, moderately long, well arched; carried proudly

when standing, set on sloping shoulders to carry head with dignity when

at attention. Neck should blend in to shoulders with graceful arch. When

moving at a trot, the neck is extended so that the head is carried slightly

forward.

Forequarters

(a) Shoulder

Shoulders should be long and sloping, with the shoulder blade well

laid back at an IDEAL angle of 45 degrees to the ground. In the

SAMOYED

January 2004

III-25.3 GROUP III WORKING DOGS

correctly constructed and balanced front assembly, the forelimbs are

placed well back on the ribcage, with the point of the sternum

(breastbone) well ahead of the front of the shoulder joint (point of

shoulder). The length of the shoulder blade is approximately 1/3 the

height at the tip of the withers.

(b) Upper Arm

The upper arm (humerus) angles backwards from point of shoulder

to elbow, ideally forming a 90 degree angle with the shoulder blade,

and is never perpendicular to the ground. The measurement from

tip of shoulder blade to point of shoulder should equal measurement

from point of shoulder to elbow.

(c) Lower Arm (Radius & Ulna)

When standing and viewed from the front, the legs are moderately

spaced, parallel and straight, with elbows close to the body and

turned neither in nor out. The angle at the elbow joint should be

approximately 135 degrees. Because of depth of chest, legs should

be moderately long. Length of lower arm should be 1 to 2 inches

longer than length of scapula. Length of leg from ground to elbow

should be approximately 55% of the total height at the withers.

(d) Pasterns

Should be strong, sturdy and flexible. The pastern slopes at approximately

15 degrees from the vertical, allowing for spring and agility,

and should be not more the 1/3 the length of the shoulder blade.

(e) Feet

Large, long, flattish, a hare-foot, slightly spread but not splayed; toes

arched, pads thick and tough, with protective growth of hair

between the toes. In natural stance, feet may be turned very slightly

out but excessive turn-out, pigeon-toed, round or cat-footed or

splayed are faults.

Body

(a) Topline

The withers forms the highest part of the back. The back should

appear level to the loin, medium in length, very muscular, neither

long nor short coupled. The ideal length of the Samoyed from tip of

sternum (breastbone) to end of pelvis is 10% more than the height

at the withers.

(b) Chest

Should be deep, with moderate spring of rib and flattened at the

sides to allow proper movement of the shoulders and freedom for

SAMOYED

Canadian Kennel Club Official Breed Standards

GROUP III WORKING DOGS III-25.4

the front legs. Should not be barrel-chested. The deepest part of the

chest should be near the 9th rib. Heart and lung room are secured

more by body depth than width.

(c) Loin

The loin is strong and slightly arched.

(d) Croup

Must be full, slightly sloping and must continue imperceptibly to the

root of the tail.

(e) Abdomen

The abdomen should be well shaped and tightly muscled and with

the rear of the thorax, should swing up in a pleasing curve (tuck-up).

Hindquarters

(a) Hipbone

The pelvis is set at 30 degrees to the horizontal and the length of the

pelvis is equal to the length of the shoulder blade measurement.

(b) Upper Thigh

The femur or thigh joins the pelvis at the hip socket, ideally forming

a 90 degree angle. The measurement of the femur is equal to the

length of the pelvis. Muscle attachments must be very powerful,

broad and evenly distributed.

(c) Lower Thigh

The lower thigh, comprised of the tibia and fibula, is ideally set at 90

degrees to the femur or upper thigh and is approximately 1/3 longer

than the pelvis. This length is very important to the gait.

(d) Hocks

Should be well developed, sharply defined and set at approximately

30% of hip height. The rear pasterns should be parallel, and

perpendicular to the ground in natural stance and forms an angle of

about 120 degrees with the lower thigh or fibula and tibia.

(e) Stifle Bend

Stifles are well bent, approximately 45 degrees to the ground.

(f) Feet

A hare-foot, same as the front feet, although may be slightly longer

and narrower than the front. If present, rear dewclaws are to be

removed.

Tail

The tail should be moderately long with the tail bone terminating

approximately at the hock when down. It should be profusely covered

SAMOYED

January 2004

III-25.5 GROUP III WORKING DOGS

with long hair and carried forward over the back and draped to either

side when alert but sometimes dropped when at rest. It should not be set

high or low, and should be mobile and loose, not tight over the back. A

very tight, immobile tail or a double hooked tail is a fault. A judge should

see the tail over the back once when judging.

Gait

The Samoyed’s characteristic gait is smooth and seemingly effortless.

They are quick and light on their feet and when on a loose lead at a

moderately fast trot, exhibit good reach in the forequarter and powerful

drive in the hindquarters, allowing them to cover the most ground with

the fewest number of steps, expending the least amount of energy to

perform the job for which they were bred. Side gait is extremely

important in assessing the desired reach and drive in the Samoyed.

When viewed from the front or rear, when moving at a walk or slow trot,

they will not single-track, but as speed increases, the legs gradually angle

inward until the pads are falling on a line directly under the longitudinal

centre of the body. As the pad marks converge, the forelegs and hindlegs

are carried straight forward, with neither elbows nor stifles turned out.

The back should remain strong, firm, and level, with very little lateral or

vertical displacement. A choppy or stilted or restricted gait should be

penalized.

Faults

The foregoing description is that of the ideal Samoyed. Any deviation

from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the

deviation. Since the Samoyed is a working breed, any faults of soundness

should be considered serious.

Disqualifications

Any colour other than white, biscuit, white and biscuit, white and cream,

cream. Blue eyes. Dewclaws on the hind legs

The Samoyed (according to the American breeding standard)

Working Group

General Conformation
(a) General Appearance - The Samoyed, being essentially a working dog, should present a picture of beauty, alertness and strength, with agility, dignity and grace. As his work lies in cold climates, his coat should be heavy and weather-resistant, well groomed, and of good quality rather then quantity. The male carries more of a "ruff" than the female. He should not be long in the back as a weak back would make him practically useless for his legitimate work, but at the same time, a close-coupled body would also place him at a great disadvantage as a draft dog. Breeders should aim for the happy medium, a body not long but muscular, allowing liberty, with a deep chest and well-sprung ribs, strong neck, straight front and especially strong loins. Males should be masculine in appearance and deportment without unwarranted aggressiveness; bitches feminine without weakness of structure or apparent softness of temperament. Bitches may be slightly longer in back than males. They should both give the appearance of being capable of great endurance but be free from coarseness. Because of the depth of chest required, the legs should be moderately long. A very short-legged dog is to be deprecated. Hindquarters should be particularly well developed, stifles well bent and any suggestion of unsound stifles or cowhocks severely penalized. General appearance should include movement and general conformation, indicating balance and good substance.

 

(b) Substance - Substance is that sufficiency of bone and muscle which rounds out a balance with the frame. The bone is heavier than would be expected in a dog of this size but not so massive as to prevent the speed and agility most desirable in a Samoyed. In all builds, bone should be in proportion to body size. The Samoyed should never be so heavy as to appear clumsy nor so light as to appear racy. The weight should be in proportion to the height.

(c) Height - Males--21 to 23½ inches; females--19 to 21 inches at the withers. An oversized or undersized Samoyed is to be penalized according to the extent of the deviation.

(d) Coat (Texture and Condition) - The Samoyed is a doublecoated dog. The body should be well covered with an undercoat of soft, short, thick, close wool with longer and harsh hair growing through it to form the outer coat, which stands straight out from the body and should be free from curl. The coat should form a ruff around the neck and shoulders, framing the head (more on males than on females). Quality of coat should be weather resistant and considered more than quantity. A droopy coat is undesirable. The coat should glisten with a silver sheen. The female does not usually carry as long a coat as most males and it is softer in texture.

(e) Color - Samoyeds should be pure white, white and biscuit, cream, or all biscuit. Any other colors disqualify.

Movement
(a) Gait - The Samoyed should trot, not pace. He should move with a quick agile stride that is well timed. The gait should be free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there should be a strong rear action drive. Moving at a slow walk or trot, they will not single-track, but as speed increases the legs gradually angle inward until the pads are finally falling on a line directly under the longitudinal center of the body. As the pad marks converge the forelegs and hind legs are carried straight forward in traveling, the stifles not turned in nor out. The back should remain strong, firm and level. A choppy or stilted gait should be penalized.

(b) Rear End - Upper thighs should be well developed. Stifles well bent-approximately 45 degrees to the ground. Hocks should be well developed, sharply defined and set at approximately 30 percent of hip height. The hind legs should be parallel when viewed from the rear in a natural stance, strong, well developed, turning neither in nor out. Straight stifles are objectionable. Double-jointedness or cowhocks are a fault. Cowhocks should only be determined if the dog has had an opportunity to move properly.

(c) Front End - Legs should be parallel and straight to the pasterns. The pasterns should be strong, sturdy and straight, but flexible with some spring for proper let-down of feet. Because of depth of chest, legs should be moderately long. Length of leg from the ground to the elbow should be approximately 55 per cent of the total height at the withers-a very short-legged dog is to be deprecated. Shoulders should be long and sloping, with a layback of 45 degrees and be firmly set. Out at the shoulders or out at the elbows should be penalized. The withers separation should be approximately 1-1½ inches.

(d) Feet - Large, long, flattish-a hare-foot, slightly spread but not splayed; toes arched; pads thick and tough, with protective growth of hair between the toes. Feet should turn neither in nor out in a natural stance but may turn in slightly in the act of pulling. Turning out, pigeon-toed, round or cat-footed or splayed are faults. Feathers on feet are not too essential but are more profuse on females than on males.

Head
(a) Conformation - Skull is wedge-shaped, broad, slightly crowned, not round or apple-headed, and should form an equilateral triangle on lines between the inner base of the ears and the central point of the stop. Muzzle--Muzzle of medium length and medium width, neither coarse nor snipy; should taper toward the nose and be in proportion to the size of the dog and the width of skull. The muzzle must have depth. Whiskers are not to be removed. Stop--Not too abrupt, nevertheless well defined. Lips--Should be black for preference and slightly curved up at the corners of the mouth, giving the "Samoyed smile." Lip lines should not have the appearance of being coarse nor should the flews drop predominately at corners of the mouth. Ears--Strong and thick, erect, triangular and slightly rounded at the tips; should not be large or pointed, nor should they be small and "bear-eared." Ears should conform to head size and the size of the dog; they should be set well apart but be within the border of the outer edge of the head; they should be mobile and well covered inside with hair; hair full and stand-off before the ears. Length of ear should be the same measurement as the distance from inner base of ear to outer corner of eye. Eyes--Should be dark for preference; should be placed well apart and deep-set; almond shaped with lower lid slanting toward an imaginary point approximately the base of ears. Dark eye rims for preference. Round or protruding eyes penalized. Blue eyes disqualifying. Nose--Black for preference but brown, liver, or Dudley nose not penalized. Color of nose sometimes changes with age and weather. Jaws and Teeth--Strong, well-set teeth, snugly overlapping with scissors bite. Undershot or overshot should be penalized.

(b) Expression - The expression, referred to as "Samoyed expression," is very important and is indicated by sparkle of the eyes, animation and lighting up of the face when alert or intent on anything. Expression is made up of a combination of eyes, ears and mouth. The ears should be erect when alert; the mouth should be slightly curved up at the corners to form the "Samoyed smile."

Torso
(a) Neck - Strong, well muscled, carried proudly erect, set on sloping shoulders to carry head with dignity when at attention. Neck should blend into shoulders with a graceful arch.

(b) Chest - Should be deep, with ribs well sprung out from the spine and flattened at the sides to allow proper movement of the shoulders and freedom for the front legs. Should not be barrel-chested. Perfect depth of chest approximates the point of elbows, and the deepest part of the chest should be back of the forelegs-near the ninth rib. Heart and lung room are secured more by body depth than width.

(c) Loin and Back - The withers forms the highest part of the back. Loins strong and slightly arched. The back should be straight to the loin, medium in length, very muscular and neither long nor short-coupled. The dog should be "just off square"--the length being approximately 5 per cent more than the height. Females allowed to be slightly longer than males. The belly should be well shaped and tightly muscled and, with the rear of the thorax, should swing up in a pleasing curve (tuck-up). Croup must be full, slightly sloping, and must continue imperceptibly to the tail root.

Tail - The tail should be moderately long with the tail bone terminating approximately at the hock when down. It should be profusely covered with long hair and carried forward over the back or side when alert, but sometimes dropped when at rest. It should not be high or low set and should be mobile and loose -- not tight over the back. A double hook is a fault. A judge should see the tail over the back once when judging.

Disposition - Intelligent, gentle, loyal, adaptable, alert, full of action, eager to serve, friendly but conservative, not distrustful or shy, not overly aggressive. Unprovoked aggressiveness is to be severely penalized.

Disqualification
Any color other than pure white, cream, biscuit, or white and biscuit.
Blue eyes.

Approved August 10, 1993
Effective September 29, 1993

 

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